# Dating old clay pipes

On the other hand, Brahmagupta was one of the key mathematicians in the world because he invented the idea of zero." "They were learned with a strong background in maths and were well versed in the local languages.

And there was strong motivation: Pope Gregory XIII set up a committee to look into modernising the Julian calendar. "Similarly there was a rising need for better navigational methods including keeping accurate time on voyages of exploration and large prizes were offered to mathematicians who specialised in astronomy."But there is also little knowledge of the medieval form of the local language of Kerala, Malayalam, in which some of most seminal texts, such as the Yuktibhasa, from much of the documentation of this remarkable mathematics is written." "For some unfathomable reasons, the standard of evidence required to claim transmission of knowledge from East to West is greater than the standard of evidence required to knowledge from West to East." The Brahmi numerals that have been found in caves and on coins around Mumbai from around the first century AD use horizontal lines for 1 to 3.

was published in a book Cultural Foundations of Mathematics.

It established that the Jesuit priests took trigonometric tables and planetary models from the Kerala mathematicians of the Aryabhata school and exported them to When the Europeans received the Indian calculus, they couldnt understand it properly because the Indian philosophy of mathematics is different from the Western philosophy of mathematics.

We also know that several different ways of writing numbers evolved in India before it became possible for existing decimal numerals to be marred with the place-value principle of the Babylonians to give birth to the system which eventually became the one which we use today.

Because of lack of authentic records, very little is known of the development of ancient Hindu mathematics.

It was easy to use and moreover it facilitated the conception of the highest imaginable numbers.

This is why it was so well suited to the most exuberant numerical or arithmetical-cosmogonic speculations of Indian culture.""The Indian people were the only civilization to take the decisive step towards the perfection of numerical notation.

How the mathematics given in these Indian ancient texts subsequently diffused into The English-speaking world has known for over one and a half centuries that Taylor series expansions for sine, cosine and arctangent functions were found in Indian mathematics / astronomy / timekeeping (jyotisa) texts, and specifically in the works of Madhava, Neelkantha, Jyeshtadeva, etc.

His earlier book Time: Towards a Consistent Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1994) set out a new physics with a tilt in the arrow of time.

He has been a Fellow of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study and is a Professor of Computer revealed how calculus, an Indian invention, was picked up by the Jesuit priests from Kerala in the second half of the 16th century and taken to Europe. Overtime, people forgot this link and the Europeans began to claim calculus as their own invention.

and provided the West with the key to the most far reaching of all the mechanical instrument on which its control of nature has been built, when it presented to Europe through the medium of Arabia the device of the cypher (and the decimal notation) upon which all modern system of numeration depend.

even so, India today or tomorrow, will, I am confident, revolutionize western doctrines of progress by demonstrating the insufficiency and lack of finality of much of the West's present system of human values.""The Indian mind has always had for calculations and the handling of numbers an extraordinary inclination, ease and power, such as no other civilization in history ever possessed to the same degree.

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